America's Irreplaceable Dance Treasures: the First 113

Dance comprises an entire world of spiritual and secular ideas, stories, emotions, and human experience, understood and expressed through movement. The rich history of dance in America serves as a reflection and a record of the nation's increasingly diverse, dynamic culture.

In the Fall of 1999, the Dance Heritage Coalition solicited nominations for America's Irreplaceable Dance Treasures: the First 100. Over 900 nominations from across the full range of American dance artistry, forms, and traditions were submitted and vetted through a three-stage process of selection committees made up of experts from across the country.

The list of America's Irreplaceable Dance Treasures: the First 100 is intended to heighten public interest in the magnificence and richness of America's dance heritage and the imperative to document and preserve it for future generations.


An irreplaceable dance treasure has:


- Made a significant impact on dance as an art form
- Demonstrated artistic excellence
- Enriched the nation's cultural heritage
- Demonstrated the potential to enhance the lives of future generations
- Shown itself worthy of national and international recognition


From 2003 to 2009, the Irreplaceable Dance Treasures were celebrated in a national touring exhibition through a collaborative exhibition to which the DHC archives contributed still images and video clips. This exhibit, which opened at The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts (New York City), traveled to Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival (Becket, Massachusetts), the Museum of Performance & Design in San Francisco, and the Ohio Cultural Center in Columbus (in association with the Theatre Research Institute at The Ohio University). This national tour garnered interest of hosts outside the DHC archives: later the exhibition was sponsored by Dance Bridge in Boulder and the Denver Public Library (in association with the Carson-Brierly Dance Collection at the University of Denver), both in Colorado, and a final installation at the Hofstra University Museum, Hempstead, New York.


View the installation of the Treasures Traveling Exhibition at 5 sites


The traveling exhibition elicited such interest from the public and dance community that the DHC sought to find a life for the exhibition after it closed. The National Endowment for the Arts awarded the DHC support to create an Online Exhibition of the Dance Treasures. This online exhibition includes fresh perspectives on the Treasures, and additional images, references, and resources. In December of 2012, the DHC named 13 more legendary American Treasures.


The following essays by Martha Ullman West were commissioned as companion pieces of America's Irreplaceable Dance Treasures.


What Is American Dance?
Women's Work American Modern Dance

113 Treasures

Alvin Ailey Suzanne Farrell Mark Morris
American Ballet Theatre Federal Dance Project Arthur Murray
American Bandstand Bob Fosse Daniel Nagrin
American Dance Festival Frederic Franklin NEA Dance Program
Fred Astaire Loïe Fuller Native American dance
Charles "Cholly" Atkins Savion Glover New Dance Group
George Balanchine Martha Graham New York City Ballet
Balasaraswati José Greco Nicholas Brothers
Ballet Russe Anna Halprin Bronislava Nijinska
Mikhail Baryshnikov Erick Hawkins Alwin Nikolais
Michael Bennett Margaret H'Doubler Rudolf Nureyev
Bennington School of Dance Martha Hill Nutcracker, The
Busby Berkeley Gregory Hines Ruth Page
Adolph Bolm Hip-Hop Anna Pavlova
Trisha Brown Hanya Holm Eleanor Powell
John W. Bubbles Lester Horton Pearl Primus
Irene and Vernon Castle Hula Jerome Robbins
Charleston, The Doris Humphrey Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
Lucia Chase Sol Hurok The Rockettes
Christensen Brothers Michael Jackson Ruth St. Denis
Jack Cole Jacob's Pillow San Francisco Ballet
Honi Coles Jerome Robbins Dance Division, NYPL Savoy Ballroom
Aaron Copland Robert Joffrey Bessie Schönberg
Merce Cunningham Bill T. Jones School of American Ballet
Asadata Dafora Master Juba Ted Shawn
Jacques d'Amboise Judson Dance Theater Oliver Smith
Dance Notation Bureau Gene Kelly Anna Sokolow
Dance Theater Workshop Lincoln Kirstein Square dance
Dance Theatre of Harlem Bella Lewitzky Swing dance
Alexandra Danilova José Limón Maria Tallchief
Chuck Davis Eugene Loring Helen Tamiris
Carmen de Lavallade 'Iolani Luahine Paul Taylor
Agnes de Mille John Martin Twyla Tharp
Edwin Denby Sophie Maslow Jennifer Tipton
Jane Dudley Matteo and Carola Goya Antony Tudor
Isadora Duncan Donald McKayle Edward Villella
Katherine Dunham Meredith Monk Charles Weidman
Garth Fagan Lillian Moore